Kidney Disease

Posted: October 11, 2013 in Uncategorized

What is kidney failure?

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??????????????????????The function of the kidneys is, among other things, to eliminate the waste items that be a consequence of the body’s metabolism. Among the significant by-products of the metabolism of protein (muscle) is urea. The kidneys take away the waste products by extracting them from the body and giving them along the ureter to the kidney, from where they are excreted in the urine.

If the kidney function fails, the waste products gather in the blood and the body. The term for this build-up is azotaemia.

Very mild levels of azotaemia can provide minimum symptoms, however, if the kidney failure remains then symptoms will begin to appear. If the kidney (or renal) failure is of sufficient degree to cause symptoms, it is called uraemia.

What causes renal failure?

Renal failure can occur rapidly – over times, weeks or months (acute renal failure) or gradually over a period of years (chronic renal failure).

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Acute renal failure

This might happen with any critical disease condition or operation, particularly those complicated by serious infection. Intense kidney damage is frequent affecting about 20 per cent of those admitted to hospital with intense conditions. If the body present to the kidneys is paid off significantly from blood loss, a drop in blood body pressure, serious contamination or insufficient salt, then the kidneys may be damaged. If this problem lasts long enough there can be permanent damage to the kidney tissue.

Unexpected obstruction to the drainage of urine from the kidney may cause damage. A kidney stone is a probable cause of this. Acute kidney damage can happen as an unusual part effect of some medications and other uncommon conditions.

Intense kidney damage may happen as an unusual side effect of some medications and other rare conditions.

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Chronic renal failure

There are lots of reasons for chronic renal failure, including inflammatory conditions affecting the kidney tissue, as a complication of long-standing diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes), chronic blockage to the drainage of the kidneys and as a consequently of particular inherited conditions such as polycystic kidney disease.

Frequently, the cause has occurred a long time early in the day and can’t be identified.

What are the symptoms?

Acute renal failure

Here the outward symptoms are mainly those of the condition evoking the kidney failure, such as for instance:

  • blood loss, causing a drop in blood pressure
  • nausea and diarrhea, causing dehydration
  • Crush injuries. If large amounts of muscle are damaged there is a release of toxic protein substances that are harmful to the kidneys
  • Unexpected blockage of urine drainage.

Chronic renal failure

The damage to the kidneys is generally quiet ‘and perhaps not noticed at an earlier stage.

It might be found incidentally from blood or urine tests prepared for other reasons. High very frequently occurs with it.

Signs are unusual until kidney failure is far advanced, when any of the following might be present:

  • tiredness
  • itching
  • lack of appetite
  • vomiting and nausea
  • breathlessness
  • fluid retention, shown as ankle swelling (oedema)
  • Weakness.

 

How is renal failure treated?

Acute renal failure

Many reasons for acute renal failure can be treated and the kidney function will return to normal with time. Alternative of the kidney function by dialysis (artificial kidney) might be essential until kidney function has returned.

Chronic renal failure

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is usually irreversible and if extensive, the kidneys might eventually crash completely.

Chronic kidney failure is a serious condition that needs urgent attention when it is diagnosed.

CKD influences 35 percent of individuals aged around 65.It believed that 31 per cent of instances of most people who have CKD remain undiagnosed.

These individuals need to be identified earlier and given the support and treatment they need. CKD can development to the need requirement for kidney transplantation or lifelong dialysis.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is just a physical}risk factor for cardiovascular disease that is also reversible or preventable in their early stages, but may involve more medical treatment.

On 05 March 2013, The Department of Wellness published Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes Technique Improving outcomes for people with or at risk of cardiovascular disease.

Conservative estimates claim that the programmed has got the potential to, for instance, prevent over 4,000 people a year  from creating type 2 diabetes and identify at least 20,000 cases of diabetes or kidney illness each year.

Occasionally it may be possible to recognize and treat the cause of the renal failure itself. More commonly the therapy needs to be non-specific. In all instances, careful blood pressure control is very essential in slowing the progress of kidney failure. One or more medicines to lower blood pressure might be given.

Improvements in diet may be required and include reducing salt consumption, avoiding foods containing a lot of potassium and reducing the quantity of protein and phosphate in the diet.

Anemia commonly results from chronic renal failure, but could be easily treated with injections of the hormone erythropoietin, as epoetin alfa (Eprex) or epoetin beta (NeoRecormon).

Supplements of vitamin D in the form of alfacalcidol (eg One-Alpha) or calcitriol (eg Rocaltrol) support to prevent a bone problem that may occur in chronic renal failure, called renal osteodystrophy.

Itching is a frequent complaint in individuals with renal failure, and antihistamines such as chlorphenamine may be prescribed to control this.

It is important to avoid particular medications, eg non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs| (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen that may worsen kidney function. You can ask your medical practitioner about this.

Dialysis

There are two major forms: peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

Peritoneal dialysis

 

The peritoneum is the obvious membrane that covers the internal organs inside the abdomen. To transport out dialysis, a plastic tube is placed within the abdomen and led out to the skin surface on the tummy (the tube can be in place for an extended time).

Specially made fluid is encounter the abdomen, remaining for some hours and then run out again to clean out the toxic substances from the body.

This is a successful form of therapy that many people can understand to hold out themselves at home, with help from the renal team and the household practice.

Hemodialysis

This really is carried out by major the individual’s blood through an artificial kidney device that cleans the blood and results it by tubing to a vein. It may be moved out over a couple of hours, and must be recurring, normally, every |handful of days. It is performed in a specialized dialysis device attached to a hospital.

If renal failure is irreversible (a condition referred to as end stage renal failure or ESRF), then long-term dialysis becomes necessary. Kidney transplantation is moved out when possible.

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